Sport is a form of human movement which can be developed in an optimal way by adequate procedures of learning, exercising, and training. Biological and mechanical law like aspects play a major fole for the execution of movements. Sport biomechanics is a theory field of sport science that deals with movement as one behavioural dimension of men. With the help of very differentiated techniques of data collection movements are examined: the results can be used for the development of optimal technique solutions in sport.
The following issues are examples representing the body of knowledge of sport biomechanics:
Movement description (mottor patterns), explanation of applied forces, biomrchanical paramters for condition andd coordination, analysis and improvement of skills in different sports, biomechanical aids for learning, exercising and training, demands on the movement apparatus, designing sport facilities and equipment, development of biomechanical theories (principles and laws) and measurement procedures.
BAUMANN (1983, 79-80) defines sport biomechanics in the following way:
The content of sport biomechanics is the human body and the sportive movement. Tasks are the objective, quantitative description and explanation of reality... by using to a great extent the language of mathematics. The used measurement techniques are biomechanical anthropometry, kinemetry, dynamometry, and electromyography... Basic mechanical paramters are time, distance, mass; derived parameters are, e.g.: velocity, force, impulse, torque, work, energy, power. Biological foundations are given by the structure and function of the passive movement apparatus. ... Based on those foundation... biomechanical principles are formulated, thus allowing a judgement on the efficiencly of movements.
Criteria for optimisation : minimising energy consumption, minimising strain on the movement apparatus, reducing the performance challenge for the movement apparatus, maximising of muscle output. ... Biomechanical measurement techniques can be differentiated according to the type of parameters measured : ... Kinematic...dynamometric. ...According to the measurement principle one can distinguish : mechanical ..., electronic ... optical measurement techniques.