Sport is realisation of movement bound by certain anatomical and physical preconditions. Sport is made possible various forms by the movement apparatus (bones, muscles, ligaments, joints) as well as the circulatory and respiratory system. Sport viewed under this perspective has a positive effect, since it improves and maintains health. Negative sides are sport related injuries and illnesses.
Sport medicine is, on the one hand, a special area of applied medicine and on the other hand a theory field of sport science. Within sport medicine the consequences of sportive actions (movement and non-movement) in regard to the human organism are investigated and examined with physiological and clinical methods. Furthermore, sport medicine provides support for surveying training and realizing competitions. Sport medicine deals with sport injuries; in regard to sport accidents preventive, therapeutic and rehabilitative actions are investigated and applied. Theoretical (research) and practical (application) aspects are in close connection.
The following issues are example terms representing the body of knowledge of sport medicine: bones, muscles, nervesm cardiac and circulatory system, breathing, nutrition, energy, sensor system, sport and illness, sport under extreme conditions, hygiene and sport, sport for the handicapped, sport medical examinations. These aspects clearly show how broad the theory field of sport medicine is.
HOLLMANN (1983, 350) defines sport medicine in the following way :
"Striving of theoretical and practical medicine to analyse the influence of movement, training, and sport as well as the one of lack of movement on healthy and sick individuals of all ages, and to provide knowledge about prevention, therapy and rehabilitation. ... In Germany and in many other countries sport medicine is recognised as an independent area for research, teaching, and practice. ... The most important social significance of sport medicine is its role within preventive medicine and rehabilitation". In the Germany language sport medicine is used in a comprehensive way: it includes the English terms like exercise physiology, biochemistry, and sport medicine.